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Sonora is a Mexican state bordered by Baja California and the Sea of Cortez to the West, Chihuahua to the East, and Sinaloa to the South. It shares a United States-Mexico border with Arizona which is 353 miles long. Sonora also shares a smaller border with its northern neighbor New Mexico, which is 12 miles long. The capital of Sonora is Hermosillo, and the state is also home to important cities such as Ciudad Obregón and Nogales. Sonora has four different geographical regions including the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Parallel Mountains and Valleys, the Sonora Desert, and the Coast of the Gulf of California. The climate of Sonora is extremely arid as most areas in Sonora are desert. The area of Sonora is 70,290.67 square miles which makes it the second largest state in Mexico. It is not densely populated with around 2.2 million persons. The economy of Sonora is diverse. Sonora has a strong export oriented manufacturing, including maquiladoras and the industrial sectors of metallurgy, mining and aerospace activities. This state is the site of the largest automotive manufacturing projectin Latin America. Sonora also produces a lot of pork, beef, oranges, pumpkins, wheat, cotton, watermelon, grapes, and asparagus.

The state of Sonora has six ports of entry with the United States, including: San Luis, Arizona with San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora; Lukeville, Arizona with Sonoita, Sonora; Nogales, Arizona with Nogales, Sonora; Naco, Arizona with Naco, Sonora; and Douglas, Arizona with Agua Prieta, Sonora. Sonora is home to four international airports, the railroad service Ferromex, a large road network extending across 1,864 miles, six maritime ports and 190 airfields.